• KRISHNANJANA S. NAIR Department ofPharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, AIMS Health SciencesCampus, Kochi 682041,Kerala, India
  • SHIVALI KAMATH Department ofPharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, AIMS Health SciencesCampus, Kochi 682041,Kerala, India
  • ARYA RAJAN Department ofPharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, AIMS Health SciencesCampus, Kochi 682041,Kerala, India
  • SACHIN THOMAS Department ofPharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, AIMS Health SciencesCampus, Kochi 682041,Kerala, India
  • ASWIN D. Department ofPharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, AIMS Health SciencesCampus, Kochi 682041,Kerala, India
  • SUBIN MARY ZACHARIAH Department ofPharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, AIMS Health SciencesCampus, Kochi 682041,Kerala, India



SARS-CoV-2, Covid-19, Infectious disease, Serology, Vaccine, Repurposingrepositioning drugs, Global pandemic, Cytokine storm, Pneumonia, Lung injury


In December 2019, a rare case of pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, China. This was later analyzed and known to have similar characteristics as viral pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus. Later, on 11 February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease as COVID19. The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) ought to taint both the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract. This COVID-19 is spreading quickly with an immense rise in cases around the world. This infection's mechanism stays obscure, and the medications explicit for the infection were not grown at this point. Infection is highly contagious. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is one of seven kinds of crown infection, including the one which causes severe maladies like Middle East respiratory disorder (MERS) and abrupt, intense respiratory syndrome(SARS). Since its revelation, the infection has spread and has caused anxiety and fear among people. Recent vaccines are tracked, and clinical trials can bring an immediate protocol on a medication approach. By including different therapeutic approaches, it is easier to combat the disease quickly. With very low mortality and high transmission rate, new approaches to vaccines and nanomedicines bring down the spread. Controlled patient care is also crucial. On 11 March, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the disease as 'global pandemic’. COVID-19, therefore, poses a significant threat to global public health.

This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic methods. The review also focuses on repurposed drugs, traced vaccines, and a quick view of prophylactic nanomedicines as an alternative for COVID 19. For this review, the complete database has been collected from various search engines such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Elsevier, etc., from the year 2001-2020 using the following keywords.


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