Assessment of the Motor Competencies Regarding Adapted Physical Activities


  • Miloš Popović Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Pristine/Kos. Mitrovica, Leposavić (Kosovo), Serbia
  • Hana Válková Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Ivana Đorđević Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
  • Ruzena Popovic Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia Republic



motor competence, physical fitness tests, evaluation, inclusion, APA


In the introduction, part authors give some of the histories of assessment in Adapted Physical Education (APE). There are currently 13 legally recognized disabilities. Inclusion has many meanings, but typically it is linked to the quality of life in the least restrictive environment and social competence, which is in line with the attitudes of individuals with and without disabilities. The fundamental principle of valuing diversity guides inclusion. Belonging, acceptance, and a sense of being supported are essentials of an inclusive environment. The most prevalent barriers to including students with disabilities are teacher preparation and teacher attitudes and perceived barriers to instruction consisting of equipment, programming, and time. Inclusion may impact internal and external factors, controlled and uncontrolled, and active and passive. People of all ages, types of disabilities, and experiences demonstrate individual differences in responding when facing similar situations in movement settings. An inclusive environment offers all individuals equally interesting, equally important, and similarly engaging tasks. An inclusive environment comprises the physical space and equipment, the social-emotional atmosphere, and the teaching strategies that are in use. The physical space should be barrier-free and include various equipment related to the lesson/activity. The social-emotional atmosphere should be free of stress, underlining cooperation rather than the existence of the fittest, fastest, or strongest. Teaching strategies should incorporate techniques that promote collaboration between instructor and learners, respond to different learning styles, encourage self-responsibility, provide opportunities for independent learning, and use various informal assessment tools to guide instruction.


Download data is not yet available.


Adam, C., Klissouras, V., Ravazollo, M., Renson, R., & Tuxworth, W. (1998). EUROFIT: European test of physical fitness - handbook. Council of Europe, Committee for the Development of Sport.

Andersen, L. B., Harro, M., Sardinha, L. B., Froberg, K., Ekelund, U., Brage, S., & Anderssen, S. A. (2006). Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: A cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet, 368(9532), 299–304.

Backman, E. (1988). Methods for measurement of muscle function: Methodological aspects, reference values for children, and clinical applications. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, Supplement, 20, 9-95.

Bille, B., Kumlin, L., Lidholt, M., Lind, B., & Nordquist, M. (1992). FBH-provet: Erfarenheter fran Folke Bernadottehemmet [The FBH test: Experiences from Folke Bernadottehemmet]. Motorika.

Blair, S. N., Cheng, Y., & Holder, J. S. (2001). Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6) 379–99.

Block, M. E. (2000). A teacher’s guide to including students with disabilities in regular physical education (2nd ed.). Brookes Publishing Co.

Boreham, C., & Riddoch, C. (2001). The physical activity, fitness and health of children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19(12), 915–929.

Bös, K., & Wohlmann, R. (1987). Allgemeiner sportmotorischer test (AST 6–11) zur diagnose den konditionellen und koordinativen leistungsfähigkeit [General sport motor test (AST 6–11) to diagnose conditional and coordinative performance]. Sportunterricht, 36(10), 145-156.

Bouchard, C., Shephard, R. J., & Brubaker, P. H. (1994). Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(1), 119.

Bruininks, R. H. (1978). Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency: Examiner’s manual. American Guidance Service.

Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research. (2001). The prudential Fitness program. Test administration manual.

Davies, P. L., & Rose, J. D. (2000). Motor skills of typically developing adolescents: Awkwardness or improvement? Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 20(1), 19–42.

DeOreo, K., & Keogh, J. (1983). Performance of fundamental motor tasks. In C. B. Corbin (Ed.), A textbook of motor development (pp. 76–91). Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.

Đorđević, I., Válková, H., Popović, R., & Popović, M. (2020). Assessment of the body composition in pre-school children: Gender differences by the preference for the elective physical activities. In V. Stanković, T. Stojanović, B. Cicović (Eds.), the seventh international scientific conference anthropological and teo-anthropological views on physical activity from the time of constantine the great to modern times (pp. 261-270). The Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Leposavić, University of Priština – Kosovska Mitrovica.

Ekelund, U., Sardinha, L. B., Anderssen, S. A., Harro, M., Franks, P. W., Brage, S., Cooper, A. R., Andersen, L. B., Riddoch, C., & Froberg, K. (2004). Association between objectively assessed physical activity and indicators of body fatness in 9- to 10-year-old European children: A population-based study from 4 distinct regions in Europe (The European Youth Heart Study). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(3), 584–590.

Fisher, A., Reilly, J. J., Kelly, L. A., Montgomery, C., Williamson, A., Paton, J. Y., & Grant, S. (2005). Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(4), 684–688.

Fjørtoft, I., Pedersen, A. V., Sigmundsson, H., & Vereijken, B. (2003). Testing children’s physical fitness—developing a new test for 4–12 years old children [Report] (IS-1256). Norwegian Social and Health Ministry.

Fjørtoft, I., Pedersen, A.V., Sigmundsson, H., & Vereijken, B. (2011). Measuring physical fitness in children who are 5 to 12 years old with a test battery that is functional and easy to administer. Physical Therapy, 91(7), 1087–1095.

Fratrić, F., & Rubin, P. (2006). Kvantitativne razlike motoričkog statusa devojčica i dečaka predškolske dobi [Quantitative differences in motor status of girls and boys pre-school age]. In G. Bala, (Ed.), Anthropological status and physical activity of children and youth (pp. 51-56). Faculty of Sports and Physical Education.

Gallahue, D. L., Ozmun, J. C., & Goodway, J. (2012). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults (7th ed.).. McGraw-Hill.

Haga M. (2008a). The relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children. Child: care, health, and development, 34(3), 329–334.

Haga, M. (2008b). Physical fitness in children with movement difficulties. Physiotherapy, 94(3), 253-259.

Hands, B. (2008). Changes in motor skill and fitness measures among children with high and low motor competence: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(2), 155-162.

Haywood, K. M., & Getchell, N. (2001). Life span motor development (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics.

Haywood, K. M., & Getchell, N. (2005). Life span motor development (6th ed.). Human Kinetics.

Henderson, S. E., & Sugden, D. A. (1992). The movement assessment battery for children. The Psychological Corporation.

Henderson, S. E., Sugden, D. A., & Barnett, A. L. (2007). Movement assessment battery for children- 2. Pearson Education.

Heyward, V. H., & Gibson, A. L. (2014). Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription (7th ed.). Human Kinetics.

Horvath, M., Eichstaedt, C., Kalakian, L., & Croce, R. (2002). Developmental/adapted physical education: Making ability count (4th ed.). Benjamin Cummings.

Hottinger, W., (1983). Early childhood. In C.B. Corbin (Ed.), A textbook of motor development (pp.26-30). Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers

Howley, E. T. (2001). Type of activity: Resistance, aerobic and leisure versus occupational physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33 33(6 Suppl), S364–S420.

Ismail, A. H. (1976). Delovanje dobro organiziranog programa fizičkog odgoja na intelektualni status [Effect of a well-organized physical education program on intellectual status]. Kineziologija, 6(1–2), 29.

Ismail, A. H., & Gruber, J. J. (1965). The predictive power of coordination and balance items in estimating intellectual achievement. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Psychology of Sports, Rome.

Ismail, A. H., & Gruber, J. J. (1967). Integrated development—Motor Aptitude and intellectual performance. Charles E. Merrill Books.

Jovanović, L., Kudláček, M., Block, M. E., & Djordjević, I. (2014). Self-efficacy of pre-service physical education teacher toward teaching students with disabilities in general physical education classes in Serbia. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 7(2), 32–46.

Kelly, L. E. (1989). Instructional time. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 60(6), 29–32.

Kukolj, M. (1999). Motor functions as basis for planning and programming of P.E. teaching. Nastava i vaspitanje, XLVIII (1-2), 133-139.

Kukolj, M., Koprivica, V., & Ugarković, D. (2002). Interconnection of motor abilities of pupils of early school age in the periods of their significant changes. In Proceeding 70–78, 7th international scientific meeting—“FIS communications”—Niš.

Lieberman, L. J., Houston-Wilson, C., & Kozub, F. M. (2002). Perceived barriers to including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19(3), 364–377.

Marsh, H. W. (1993). The multidimensional structure of physical fitness: Invariance over gender and age. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64(3), 256–273.

Okely, A. D., Booth, M. L., & Patterson, J. W. (2001). Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(11), 1899–1904.

Olesen, L. G., Kristensen, P. L., Ried-Larsen, M., Grøntved, A., & Froberg, K. (2014). Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 pre-schools: A cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatrics, 14, 229.

Piek, J. P., Baynam, G. B., & Barrett, N. C. (2006). The relationship between fine and gross motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science, 25(1), 65–75.

Popović, M. (2011). Hodnocení pohybového rozvoje dětí s mentálním postižením ze základní a střední školy [The evaluation of motor development in elementary and secondary school children with intellectual disabilities] [Master’s thesis, Palacky University Olomouc]. Theses.CZ.;isshlret=Milo%C5%A1%3BPOPOVI%C4%86%3B;zpet=%2Fvyhledavani%2F%3Fsearch%3Dpopovic%20milos%26start%3D1

Popović, M., Válková, H., Popović, R., & Dolga, M. (2016). Physical Fitness Test (PFT) of the special education elementary students and school success: Gender differences. In Proceeding of the IV International Scientific Conference Special Education and Rehabilitation - Early Intervention, Subotica, Serbia, 14-16 October 2016 (p. 218).

Popović, M., Válková, H., Popović, R., & Dolga, M. (2019a). The relation of physical fitness and school success of children with intellectual disabilities. Global Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities, 6(2), 1-8.

Popović, M., Válková, H., Popović, R., & Dolga, M. (2019b). Relacije fizičkog fitnesa, mentalne zrelosti, uzrasta i akademskog postignuća kod učenika specijalnog srednjeg obrazovanja: Polne razlike. [Relation of physical fitness, mental maturity, age and academic success in special secondary school students: Gender differences. In Serbian]. In V. Stanković & T. Stojanović (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Scientific Conference Anthropological and Teo-Anthropological Views Physical Activity from The Time of Constantine The to Modern Times, 21-22 March 2019 (pp. 130-140). The Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Leposavić, University of Priština –Kosovska Mitrovica.

Popović, R., Aleksić, D., & Vojinović, V. (2010). Developmental characteristics of pre-school children with particular emphasis on basic motor skills and evaluation of the applied value of the used battery of tests. In R. Stanković (Ed.), Proceedings of the FIS Komunikacije-2010, Nis (pp. 608-627).

Reed, J. A., Metzker, A., & Phillips, D. A. (2004). Relationships between physical activity and motor skills in middle school children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99(2), 483–494.

Samouilidou, A. E. (2004). Stimulacija motornog razvoja učenika sa mentalnom retardacijom [Stimulation of motor development of students with mental retardation. In Serbian]. Zadužbina Andrejević.

Schmutz, E. A., Leeger-Aschmann, C. S., Kakebeeke, T. H., Zysset, A. E., Messerli-Bürgy, N., Stülb, K., Arhab, A., Meyer, A. H., Munsch, S., Puder, J. J., Jenni, O. G., & Kriemler, S. (2020). Motor competence and physical activity in early childhood: Stability and relationship. Frontiers in Public Health, 8(39), 1-8.

Sherrill, C. (1998). Adapted physical activity, recreation, and sport: Crossdisciplinary and lifespan. WCB/McGraw-Hill.

Thompson, L., Boufford, E., Watkinson, J., & Causgrove Dunn, J. L. (1994). Teaching children with movement difficulties: Highlighting the need for individualized instruction in regular physical education. Physical Education Review, 17, 152–159.

Válková, H. (2010). Kudy na to? O motorické kompetenci a principech adaptaci v APA [Where to do it? On motor competence and principles of adaptation in APA]. Aplikované pohybové aktivity v teorii a praxi, 1(2), 31–39.

Winnick, J. P. (2005). Adapted physical education and sport (4th ed.). Human Kinetics.

Wrotniak, B. H., Epstein, L. H., Dorn, J. M., Jones, K. E., & Kondilis, V. A. (2006). The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 118(6), e1758-1765.

Zurc, J., Pišot, R., & Strojnik, V. (2005). Gender differences in motor performance in 6.5 year-old children. Kinesiologica Slovenica, 11, 90-104.



How to Cite

Popović, M., Válková, H., Đorđević, I., & Popovic, R. (2022). Assessment of the Motor Competencies Regarding Adapted Physical Activities. Innovare Journal of Education, 10(4), 1–11.



Research Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)