An Analysis of the Curriculum Ideology in the Lesotho General Certificate of Secondary Education English Language Syllabus


  • Kananelo Sylvester Moea Arts and Social Sciences, Languages and Literature, Lesotho College of Education, Thaba- Tseka 550, Lesotho



LGCSE, English Language teaching, curriculum, ideologies, curriculum and assessment policy


The role of the English Language is undeniable in maintaining the growth and development of skilled workforces that are globally compatible. This study sets out to analyze the curriculum ideology of the Lesotho General Certificate of Secondary Education (LGCSE) English Language syllabus. The study was qualitatively conducted through the use of document analysis- analyzing the syllabus document. The findings reveal that the LGCSE English Language syllabus has the four curriculum ideologies, though in varying degrees. It appears that the dominant ideology in this syllabus is the learner-centered ideology which appears in four syllabus aims, followed closely by social efficiency appearing in three aims, the social reconstruction appearing in two aims. Trailing behind is the scholar’s academic ideology appearing in one syllabus aim. This LGCSE English Language syllabus positions a learner largely as an affiliate of society and also one who can function effectively in various milieus in a society. The current study suggests curriculum ideology awareness programs should be given to teachers and prospective teachers of the English Language to assist them in their teaching of the English Language. The study also recommends that a survey study can be conducted on teachers and teacher educators before designing the national curriculum of Lesotho because much curriculum is affected by the ideology of the teacher.


Download data is not yet available.


Alanazi, S. (2016). Comparison for curriculum ideologies. American Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(1), 1–10.

Asad, M. M., Rind, A. A., Khand, Z. H., Rind, I. A., & Mughal, S. H. (2020). Curriculum upgradation practices among higher education institutions of Pakistan: Does curriculum ideologies make difference? Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education.

Bhandari, P. (2022, October 10). What is qualitative research? | Methods and examples. Scribbr.

Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27–40.

Brennan, M. (2011). National curriculum: A political-educational tangle. Australian Journal of Education, 55(3), 259–280.

Bustin, R. (2018). What’s your view? Curriculum ideologies and their impact in the geography classroom. Teaching Geography, 43(2), 61–63.

Cotti, R., & Schiro, M. (2004). Connecting Teacher Beliefs to the Use of Children?s Literature in the Teaching of Mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 7(4), 329–356.

Gathumbi, A. W. (2008). The process of developing English literacy norms. In T. Groenewegen (Ed.), Benchmarks for English Language education (pp. 45–88). Phoenix Press.

Hajizadeh, H., & Karami, M. (2014). The analysis of the intended and implemented curriculum in junior high school (According to UNESCO’s elements in Peace education). Research in Curriculum Planning, 11(15), 92–109.

Ivowi, U. M. O. (2009). Definition or meaning of curriculum. In U. M. O. Ivowi, K. Nwufo, C. Nwagbara, U. M. Nzewi & G. C. Offorma (Eds.), Curriculum diversification in Nigeria (pp. 1–16). CON.

McEachron, G., & Bhatti, G. (2015). Teaching English as an additional language in the global classroom: A transnational study in the United States and United Kingdom. Global Education Review, 2(2), 59–83.

Mnguni, L. (2013). The curriculum ideology of the South African secondary school Biology. South African Journal of Education, 33(2), 1–11.

Mnguni, L. (2018a). Citizenship education and the curriculum ideologies of Natural Sciences and Life Sciences curricula in South Africa. Curriculum Perspectives, 38(2), 97–106.

Mnguni, L. (2018b). The curriculum ideology recommended by novice teachers for life sciences in South Africa. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(7), 3099–3108.

Mnguni, L. (2021). The integration of different curriculum ideologies in a school science subject. Education Sciences, 11(9).

Moea, K. S. (2022a). Problems faced by Lesotho piloting high school teachers in implementing the 2009 curriculum and assessment policy. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 10(4), 69–73.

Moea, K. S. (2022b). Opportunities of Poetry Pedagogy in Literature in English at Two Leribe Schools: Teachers’ perceptions. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 10(5), 74–78.

Moea, K. S. (2022c). Curriculum ideology of the Lesotho general certificate of secondary education literature in English. American Journal of Arts and Human Science, 1(4), 1–9.

MOET. (2009). Curriculum and assessment policy: Education for individual and social development. Maseru: Ministry of Education and training.

MOET. (2016). Education sector plan 2016–2026. MOET.

Morgan, H. (2022). Conducting a qualitative document analysis. Qualitative Report, 27(1), 64–77.

Moriani, I. A., Taseer, N. A., & Rind, A. A. (2021). Understanding the perceptions of teachers of Sukkur IBA community colleges and the teachers of public schools of city Shikarpur about the curriculum ideologies: A comparative study. Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research, 4(2), 317–324.

Muhammdipouya, F., & Muhammdipouya, S. (2018). Recognition and Prioritization of the Curriculum Ideologies of Medical Science Professors in the Area of the Six Curriculum Components. Journal of Medical Education Development, 11(31), 85–96. (2018). Lesotho localised curriculum and assessment in senior secondary education: Collaboration between the Examinations Council of Lesotho and Cambridge International Examinations.

NCDC, & ECOL. (2019). The Lesotho general certificate of secondary education: English Language syllabus. MOET.

Obaidul, H. M. (2010). Globalisation, English for everyone and English teacher capacity: Language policy discourses and realities in Bangladesh. Current Issues in Language Planning, 11(4), 289–310.

Obilo, P. I., & Sangoleye, S. A. (2015). Curriculum implementation and the teacher: Challenges and way forward. Owerri, Nigeria.

Peña-Sandoval, C. H., & Jiménez, T. L. (2020). Ideologías curriculares y concepciones sobre diversidad y justicia social [Curricular ideologies and conceptions about diversity and social justice]. Cadernos de Pesquisa, 50(177), 738–757.

Rind, A. A., & Mughal, S. (2020). An analysis of Pakistan’s national Mathematics at secondary level. Electronic Journal of Education, Social Economical and Technology, 1(1), 39–42.

Roy-Campbell, Z. M. (2014). Teaching English as a “second language” in Kenya and the United States: Convergences and divergences. Global Education Review, 2(2), 84–97.

Schiro, M. S. (2008). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. SAGE Publication.

Schiro, M. S. (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. SAGE.

Tholappan, A. (2015). Knowledge and curriculum. Bharathidasan University.

UKESSAYS. (November 2018). Curriculum ideologies in the classroom.

Vars, G. F. (1991). Integrated curriculum in historical perspective. In Abstracts International, 20, 1830–1831.

Zhang, F., & Liu, Y. (2014). A study of secondary school English teachers’ beliefs in the context of curriculum reform in China. Language Teaching Research, 18(2), 187–204.



How to Cite

Moea, K. S. (2023). An Analysis of the Curriculum Ideology in the Lesotho General Certificate of Secondary Education English Language Syllabus. Innovare Journal of Education, 11(1), 42–46.



Research Article(s)