USING HAIR GROWTH ACTIVITY, PHYSICAL STABILITY, AND SAFETY TESTS TO STUDY HAIR TONICS CONTAINING ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LICORICE (GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA LINN.)
Keywords:Licorice, Hair growth activity, Glycyrrhizic acid, Mild irritation
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety, physical stability, and hair growth activity of ethanol extract of licorice.
Methods: In this study, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% licorice extract was formulated into a hair tonic as a tonic is easier to use and is not sticky like a semisolid
dosage. The hair growth activity test was conducted by rubbing the hair tonic preparations on rabbit's backs; subsequently, the hair length, hair
thickness, hair weight, and hair density were measured. Quantitative analysis of glycyrrhizic acid from the licorice ethanol extract with a ultraviolet
spectrophotometer showed a level of about 156.65 mg/g or 15.665%. The physical stability test was performed on samples of the tonic stored at low
(4Â±2Â°C), room (25Â±2Â°C), and high (40Â±2Â°C) temperature, and a cycling test was also performed. The safety test was performed using an eye irritation
test that employed the Hen's egg testâ€“chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method and a skin irritation test that employed the patch test method.
Results: The hair tonics containing 5% and 10% licorice extract had an equivalent activity of hair growth and even better than the positive control
containing 2% minoxidil. The physical stability test showed that the licorice extract hair tonic has good physical stability. The results of the safety test
showed no skin irritation, whereas the HET-CAM test showed that the hair tonic containing licorice extract showed mild eye irritation.
Conclusions: Licorice ethanol extract hair tonic solutions in concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% had hair growth activity similar to that of the
positive control (minoxidil). They have a good physical and chemical stability, also safe for topical use, except the 2.5% licorice ethanol extract hair
tonic solution which caused mild eye irritation.
Harahap M. Ilmu Penyakit Kulit. 1st ed. Jakarta: Hipokrates; 2000.
Mitsui T. New Cosmetic Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
Nakayama Shoten Publishers; 1992.
Wasiaatmadja SM. Penuntun Ilmu Kosmetik Medik. 1st ed. Jakarta:
Universitas Indonesia Press; 1997.
Indonesian Ministry of Health. Formularium Kosmetika Indonesia.
Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Health; 1985.
Purwal L, Gupta S, Pande M. Development and evaluation of herbal
formulations for hair growth. EJ Chem 2008;5(1):34-8.
Ha KB, Bae W, Kim SN, Kim AR, Jung KM, Kim EJ, et al. Cosmetic
Composition for Inhibiting Hair Loss and Enhanched Hair Growth.
United States Patent Application Publication. US 2013/0089632 A1;
Nam JH. Hair Growth Stimulants and the Manufacturing Method
Thereof. United States Patent. US 8,298,592 B2; 2012.
Aimi M, Nemori R, Ogiwara K. Casien Nanoparticle. US2009-0280148
Lourith N, Kanlayavattanakul M. Hair loss and herbs for treatment.
J Cosmet Dermatol 2013;12(3):210-22.
Upadhyay S, Ghosh AK, Singh V. Hair growth promotant activity of
petroleum ether root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L (Fabaceae) in
female rats. Trop J Pharm 2012;11(5):753-8.
Yakuji Nippo Ltd. Official Monoghraphs for Part II. Japanese
Pharmacopoeia. 14th ed. Tokyo: Yakuji Nippo Ltd.; 2008. p. 933-4.
Djajadisastra J. Cosmetic Stability. Seminar Setengah Hari HIKI.
Depok: Departemen Farmasi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu
Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Indonesia ; 2004.
Tanaka S, Saito M, Tabasa M. Bioassay of crude drug for hair growth
promoting activity in mice by a new simple methods. Plant Med
Schrader K, Domsch A. Cosmetology-Theory and Practice. 1st ed.
Jerman: Verlag Fur Chemische Industrie; 2005.
Raja MS, Khan I, Perumal P, Srikakolapu SR, Gotteti SD. Quantitative
analysis of glycyrrhizic acid in crude drug and its herbal. Arch Appl Sci
Kang JI, Kim EJ, Kim MK, Jeon YJ, Kang SM, Koh YS, et al. The
Int J App Pharm, Special Issue (October)
Utami et al.
promoting effect of Ishige sinicola on hair growth. Mar Drugs
Nam YJ, Tran LS, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Nishiyama R, Shin R.
Regulatory roles of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in response to
potassium deficiency in Arabidopsis. PLoS One 2012;7(10):e47797.
Allayie SA, Hemalatha S, Elanohezhiyan C, Manoharan V,
Balasubramanian K, Sheikh BA. In vivo evaluation of hair growth
potential of fresh leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata. J Clin Exp
Dermatol Res 2012;3(2):1-4.
Sigit H. Pengaruh Ekstrak Etanol Daun Mangkokan (Nothopanx
scutellarium L.) Terhadap Kecepatan Pertumbuhan Rambut Kelinci
Jantan dan Profil Kromatogram lapis Tipisnya. Thesis. Surakarta:
Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta; 2005.
Sadiah S, Herlina N, Indriati D. Effectivity of Ethanol 70% Extract
of Mangkokan (Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm. f) Merr) Leaves in
Emulsion Form as Hair Growth Stimulant. Fitofarmaka 2014;4(1):10â€‘7.