• INDAH DAMAYANTI Undergraduate Program of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang km 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java, 45363
  • NANAN NUR’AENY Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Sekeloa Selatan no 1, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia 40132
  • INDAH SUASANI WAHYUNI Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Sekeloa Selatan no 1, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia 40132



Interleukin, Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Biomarker, Gene polymorphism


This review aimed to describe the interleukins and interleukin gene polymorphisms related to and recommended as a RAS biomarker. Articles were searched through PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases, using the keywords of “Interleukin” AND “Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis”. The Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) was used, and the writing of this review refers to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 8 articles met the criteria and showed a low risk of bias assessment. The level of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 in the acute clinical phase of RAS were higher than in the recovery phase, but IL-10 levels showed decreased. IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 gene polymorphisms were found to be more frequent in RAS patients compared to controls, while IL-12 gene polymorphisms were found to be less associated with RAS pathogenesis. Interleukins at the proteomic level that recommended as a pro-inflammatory biomarker are IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and IL-18, while an anti-inflammatory is IL-10. Only IL-2 can be recommended as a biomarker at the genomic level, as other interleukins still require more investigation.


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