COVID-19, Omicron (B.1.1.529), Spredability, Treatment, Vaccine, Diagnosis


The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is a variant of SARS-CoV-2 with more than 50 mutations; this led to increase transmissibility or lead to immune escape. Therefore, WHO predicts it to be more dangerous than the previous variant, although it is not as severe as the previous variant. This review aims to provide an overview of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms, severity, mutations, and the effectiveness of treatments and vaccines against this novel coronavirus, as well as the effectiveness of current diagnostic tests.


Download data is not yet available.


Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9, PMID 31986257.

Brandal LT, MacDonald E, Veneti L, Ravlo T, Lange H, Naseer U, Feruglio S, Bragstad K, Hungnes O, Ødeskaug LE, Hagen F, Hanch-Hansen KE, Lind A, Watle SV, Taxt AM, Johansen M, Vold L, Aavitsland P, Nygard K, Madslien EH. Outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant in norway, November to December 2021. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(50). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.50.2101147, PMID 34915975.

Bhardwaj K, Sun J, Holzenburg A, Guarino LA, Kao CC. RNA recognition and cleavage by the SARS coronavirus endoribonuclease. J Mol Biol. 2006;361(2):243-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.06.021, PMID 16828802.

Torjesen I. Covid-19: omicron may be more transmissible than other variants and partly resistant to existing vaccines, scientists fear. BMJ. 2021;375:n2943. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n2943, PMID 34845008.

Zhao H, Lu L, Peng Z, Chen LL, Meng X, Zhang C, To KKW. SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant shows less efficient replication and fusion activity when compared with delta variant in TMPRSS2-expressed cells: omicron variant replication kinetics. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021;1:18.

Araf Y, Akter F, Tang YD, Fatemi R, Parvez MSA, Zheng C, Hossain MG. Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2: genomics, transmissibility, and responses to current COVID-19 vaccines. J Med Virol. 2022;94(5):1825-32. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27588. PMID 35023191.

Maisa A, Spaccaferri G, Fournier L, Schaeffer J, Deniau J, Rolland P, Coignard B. First cases of Omicron in France are exhibiting mild symptoms, November 2021-. Infect Dis. January 2022:2022. doi: 10.1016/j. idnow.2022.02.003.

Maslo C, Friedland R, Toubkin M, Laubscher A, Akaloo T, Kama B. Characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients in South Africa during the COVID-19 Omicron wave compared with previous waves. JAMA. 2022;327(6):583-84. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.24868, PMID 34967859.

Karim SSA, Karim QA, Omicron SC. Variant: a new chapter in the COVID-19 pandemic The Lancet. 2021;2:2126-8.

Parums DV. Editorial: The 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) Priority Recommendations and Response to the Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2. Med Sci Monit. 2022;28:e936199. doi: 10.12659/MSM.936199, PMID 35102132.

Hoffmann M, Krüger N, Schulz S, Cossmann A, Rocha C, Kempf A, Nehlmeier I, Graichen L, Moldenhauer AS, Winkler MS, Lier M, Dopfer Jablonka A, Jack HM, Behrens GMN, Pohlmann S. The omicron variant is highly resistant against antibody-mediated neutralization: implications for control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Cell. 2022;185(3):447-456.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.12.032, PMID 35026151.

Zhao H, Lu L, Peng Z, Chen LL, Meng X, Zhang C, Ip JD, Chan WM, Chu AW, Chan KH, Jin DY, Chen H, Yuen KY, To KK. SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant shows less efficient replication and fusion activity when compared with delta variant in TMPRSS2-expressed cells. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022;11(1):277-83. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.2023329, PMID 34951565.

Papanikolaou V, Chrysovergis A, Ragos V, Tsiambas E, Katsinis S, Manoli A, Papouliakos S, Roukas D, Mastronikolis S, Peschos D, Batistatou A, Kyrodimos E, Mastronikolis N. From delta to omicron: S1-RBD/S2 mutation/deletion equilibrium in SARS-CoV-2 defined variants. Gene. 2022;814:146134. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2021.146134.

Mannar D, Saville JW, Zhu X, Srivastava SS, Berezuk AM, Tuttle K, Subramaniam S. SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant: ACE2 binding, cryo-EM structure of spike protein-ACE2 complex and antibody evasion. bioRxiv. 2021. doi: 10.1101/2021.12.19.473380.

Fantini J, Yahi N, Colson P, Chahinian H, La Scola B, Raoult D. The puzzling mutational landscape of the SARS‐2‐variant omicron. J Med Virol. 2022;94(5):2019-25. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27577, PMID 34997962.

Takashita E, Kinoshita N, Yamayoshi S, Sakai Tagawa Y, Fujisaki S, Ito M, Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Chiba S, Halfmann P, Nagai H, Saito M, Adachi E, Sullivan D, Pekosz A, Watanabe S, Maeda K, Imai M, Yotsuyanagi H, Mitsuya H, Ohmagari N, Takeda M, Hasegawa H, Kawaoka Y. Efficacy of antibodies and antiviral drugs against covid-19 omicron variant. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(10):995-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2119407, PMID 35081300.

Kim S, Liu Y, Ziarnik M, Cao Y, Zhang XF, Im W. Binding of human ACE2 and RBD of omicron enhanced by unique interaction patterns among SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. bioRxiv. 2022. doi: 10.1101/2022.01.24.477633, PMID 35118473.

Park TJ, Hyun MS, Lee HJ, Lee SY, Ko S. A self-assembled fusion protein-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor for rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Talanta. 2009 July 15;79(2):295-301. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.03.051, PMID 19559881.

de Michelena P, Torres I, Ramos Garcia A, Gozalbes V, Ruiz N, Sanmartin A, Botija P, Poujois S, Huntley D, Albert E, Navarro D. Real-life performance of a COVID-19 rapid antigen detection test targeting the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein for diagnosis of COVID-19 due to the omicron variant. J Infection. 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2022.02.022.

Osterman A, Badell I, Basara E, Stern M, Kriesel F, Eletreby M, Öztan GN, Huber M, Autenrieth H, Knabe R, Späth PM, Muenchhoff M, Graf A, Krebs S, Blum H, Durner J, Czibere L, Dächert C, Kaderali L, Baldauf HM, Keppler OT. Impaired detection of omicron by SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2022;1:3. doi: 10.1007/s00430-022-00730-z, PMID 35187580.

Biju P, KP, Revadigar V, Dsouza S, Asif Iqbal M, Ahmed G. A review on the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the health care sector. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2021:1-6. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i10.42566.

Andrews N, Stowe J, Kirsebom F, Toffa S, Rickeard T, Gallagher E, Bernal JL. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the omicron (B. 1.1. 529) variant of concern. MedRxiv. 2021. doi: 10.1101/2021.12.14.21267615.

DIYYA ASM, THOMAS NV. Potential therapeutic avenues for Covid-19 therapy. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020;12:11-4. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i8.38023.

Leung TYM, Chan AYL, Chan EW, Chan VKY, Chui CSL, Cowling BJ, Gao L, Ge MQ, Hung IFN, Ip MSM, Ip P, Lau KK, Lau CS, Lau LKW, Leung WK, Li X, Luo H, Man KKC, Ng VWS, Siu CW, Wan EYF, Wing YK, Wong CSM, Wong KHT, Wong ICK. Short- and potential long-term adverse health outcomes of COVID-19: a rapid review. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9(1):2190-9. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1825914. PMID 32940572.

Hurkat NJ, Ramulu V, Gurram S. Is convalescent plasma therapy effective for COVID-19? Our initial experience at tertiary care center. Glob J Transfus Med. 2021;6:26.

Bhowmik R, Nath R, Sharma S, Roy R, Biswas R. High-throughput screening and dynamic studies of selected compounds against SARS-COV-2. Int J App Pharm. 2022;14:251-60. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.43105.

Vinod B, BABU A, MARIA F, ANTONY S. The potential of remdesivir against sars cov 2: a review. Int J Pharm Pharm. 2020;12:20-3.

Kadam H, Kaphare G, Avhad R, Aher P, Gade N, Bajait M, Talele S, Jadhav A. Long-term immunological consequences of COVID-19 on health. Int J App Pharm. 2022;14:42-9. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.42311.



How to Cite

SAADH, M. J. (2022). OMICRON SARS-CoV-2 VARIANT, B.1.1.529: SEVERITY, TRANSMISSION, MUTATION, AND EFFICACY OF CURRENT VACCINES. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(3), 12–15.



Review Article(s)