• Gayathri R Department of Biochemistry, Research and Development Centre, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore - 641 106, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Anuradha Venkataraman Department of Biochemistry, Mohammed Sathak College of Arts and Science, Sholinganallur, Chennai - 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Vishnupriya V Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Mallika Jainu Department of Biochemistry, Biogen Care Research Center, Chennai - 600 014, Tamil Nadu, India.



Oral cancer, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, Myristica fragrans Houtt, Histopathology


Objective: Oral cancer is the most common forms of malignancy diagnosed in men and women and the mortality rate is very high in the developing countries. Therefore, the study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of Myristica fragrans Houtt (mace) acetone extract (MAE) on experimentally induced oral cancer in rats.

Methods: Oral cancer was experimentally induced to rats by administering 4NQO (carcinogenic agent) at a concentration of 30 ppm in drinking water and treated with three different doses of mace extract (100, 250, 500mg/kg body weight) dissolved in water and given orally as a single dose and another group treated with the standard 5-fluorouracil for 14 weeks.

Results: All the experimental groups had an incremental weight gain, except NQO alone induced group showed body weight loss and also showed low survival rate denoting the NQO carcinogenic toxicity in them. The exophytic tumor volume showed gradual increase and reached 30 mm3 at the 14 weeks time point. Tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity values of mace extract treatment (100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight) showed gradual reduction in the size of tumor significantly compared with that of the standard drug. The histopathological examination of oral tumor mucosal tissue illustrated well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in NQO induced group and also declining the risk of carcinoma changes in MAE treated groups.

Conclusions: These experimental results unveil that MAE possesses effective role in curing oral cancer.


Download data is not yet available.


Salahshourifar I, Chog VK, Thomas G, Zain RB. Genomic DNAcopy number of alterations from precursor of oral lesions to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol 2014;50:404-12.

Sumitra C, Krunal N. In vitro and In vivo methods for anticancer activity evaluation and some Indian medicinal plants possessing anticancer properties: An overview. J Pharm Phytochem 2013;2:140-52.

Vu N, Camile SF. Efficacy of narrow band imaging for detection and surveillance of potential malignant and malignant lesions in the oral cancer and oropharynx. Oral Oncol 2014;50:413-20.

Mozaffarul I, Datta J, Teknos LT. Down regulation of RhoCby microRNA-138 results in de-activation of FAK, Src and Erik signaling pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol 2014;68:448-56.

Desai AG, Qazi GN, Ganju RK, El-Tamer M, Singh J, Saxena AK, et al. Medicinal plants and cancer chemoprevention. Curr Drug Metab 2008;9:581-91.

Kumar A, Rahal A, Chakraborty S, Tiwari R. Ocimum sanctum (tulsi): A miracle herb and boon to medical science: A review. Int J Agric Plant Prod 2013;4:1580-9.

Kim EY, Choi HJ, Park MJ, Jung YS. Myristicafragrans suppresses tumor growth and metabolism by inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase. Am J Chin Med 2016;44:1063-79.

Ulyana MA, Peter J, Blanco C, Susan M, Esperanza JC. New acyclic bisphenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristicafragrans Houtt., exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects. Food Chem 2016;202:269-75.

Jannu LN, Hussain SP, Rao AR. Chemopreventive action of mace (Myristicafragrans, Houtt) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice. CancerLett 1991;56:59-63.

Gayathri R, Anuradha V. Phytochemical screening and total phenolic content of aqueous and acetone extracts of seed, butter, mace of Nutmeg (Myristicafragrans Houtt). Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2015;33:236-9.

Eun-Sun C, Jun-Sung K, Ki-Han K, Hyng-Seop K, Cho NP, Cho S. Methanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. with cytotoxic activity against PC53 human prostate cancer cells. Mol Med Rep 2012;6:670-4.

Chakraborty P, Lavanya P, Abraham J. Bioactivity of Myristica fragrans methanol extract. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:1145-57.

Nagja T, Vimal K, Sanjeev A. Myristica fragrans: A comprehensive review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:27-30.

Tang XH, Knudsen B, Bemis D, Tickoo S, Gudas LJ. Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:301-13.

Wiixen R, Nathanson A, Moberger G, Anneroth G. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva. Histological classification and grading of malignancy. Acta Otolaryngol 1975;79:146-54.

Anneroth G, Hansen LS. A methodologic study of histologic classification and grading of malignancy in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Scand J Dent Res 1984;92:448-68.

Hasan S, Elongovan S. Conventional and advanced diagnostic aids in oral cancer screening-the journey so far. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:29-33.

Ramos J, Villa J, Ruiz A, Armstrong R, Matta J. UV dose determines key characteristics of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:2006-11.



How to Cite

R, G., A. Venkataraman, V. V, and M. Jainu. “ANTICANCER STUDY OF MYRISTICA FRAGRANS HOUTT. (MACE) EXTRACT ON 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE-INDUCED ORAL CANCER IN RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, no. 7, July 2018, pp. 189-92, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i7.25363.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>