• REINA HUTAURUK Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430 Indonesia
  • DEWI FATMA SUNIARTI Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430 Indonesia
  • WIDURINI DJOHAN Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430 Indonesia




Javanese turmeric ethanol extract, Streptococcus sanguinis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Biofilm, Inhibition


Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the potential of Javanese turmeric ethanol extract in the inhibition of the formation of
Streptococcus sanguinis and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms, individually and in combination.
Methods: The concentration of P. gingivalis and S. sanguinis bacteria ranged from 0.5% to 25%. Inhibition assay for biofilm formation was conducted
on a 96-well plate using brain heart infusion (BHI) agar enriched with 0.2% sucrose at 37oC for 18 h. After staining with 0.5% crystal violet, the optical
density was measured at 490 nm.
Results: Javanese turmeric can potentially inhibit the biofilm formation of S. sanguinis (IC50 0.5%, IC90 15%) and P. gingivalis (IC50 15%) on single and
dual species (IC50 0.5%, IC90 15%).
Conclusion: Javanese turmeric has the potential to inhibit the formation of S. sanguinis and P. gingivalis biofilms.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Aspalli S, Shetty VS, Devarathnamma MV, Nagappa G, Archana D,
Parab P, et al. Evaluation of antiplaque and antigingivitis effect of herbal
mouthwash in treatment of plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized,
clinical trial. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18:48-52.
2. Solmaz G, Korachi M. Inhibition and disruption properties of
chlorhexidine gluconate on single and multispecies oral biofilm.
Jundishapur J Microbiol 2013;6:61-6.
3. Indonesian Agency of Food and Drugs Administration. National
movement of drinking Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Clin Microbiol Rev
4. Rukayadi Y, Hwang JK. In vitro activity of Xanthorrhizol against
Streptococcus mutans Biofilms. Lett Appl Microbiol 2006;42:400-4.
5. Kasiran K. Increased supply of natural medicinal raw materials sourced
from Javanese turmeric: Study on the production of Javanese turmeric
(Curcuma xanthorrhiza) through the use of different seed sizes. Bul
Penelit Sist Kesehat 2008;11:270-5.
6. Marsh PD, Martin MV. Oral Microbiology. 5th ed. London: Churchill
Livingstone Elsevier; 2011. p. 30-85.
7. Tu Y, Huang W, Pan Z, Hu H, Chen H. Effect of Streptococcus
sanguinis/Porphyromonas gingivalis single and combined biofilms
upon platelet aggregation. Oral Dis 2012;18:586-94.
8. Lima BA, Lira SP, Kossuga M, Goncalves R, Berlinck R, Kamiya R.
Halistanol sulfate A and rodriguesines A and B are antimicrobial and
antibiofilm agents against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus
mutans. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2014;24:651-9.
9. Hertiani T, Pratiwi SU, Irianto ID, Adityaningrum D, Pranoto B. Effect
of Indonesian medicinal plants essential oils on Streptococcus mutans
biofilm. Maj Farm Indones 2011;23:174-81.
10. Quave CL, Plano LR, Pantuso T, Bennett BC. Effects of extracts
from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation
and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118:418-28.
11. O’Toole GA, Kolter R. Initiation of biofilm formation in pseudomonas
fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signalling
pathways: A genetic analysis. Mol Microbiol 1998;28:449-61.
12. Minhas T, Greenman J, Schaffer A. Effects of mucin, haemoglobin and
collagen on the maximum specific growth rate, biomass and hydrolytic
enzyme production of Porphyromonas gingivalis in continuous culture.
Microb Ecol Health Dis 1991;4:311-9.
13. Wibowo M, Deasywaty D, Usia T. Antimicrobial and identification of
active compound Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Int J Basic Appl Sci
14. Wilson S, Dick H. Topley and Wilson’s Principle of Bacteriology,
Virology, and Immunity. 7th ed. London: Edward Arnol Ltd; 1984. p. 84.
15. Greenberg M, Dodds M, Tian M. Naturally occurring phenolic
antibacterial compounds show effectiveness against oral bacteria by a
quantitative structure-activity relationship study. J Agric Food Chem
16. Campos FM, Couto JA, Figueiredo AR, Tóth IV, Rangel AO, Hogg TA,
et al. Cell membrane damage induced by phenolic acids on wine lactic
acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 2009;135:144-51.
17. Harold C, Thomas D. Medical Microbiology. 4th ed. Galveston: The
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996.
18. Kemp CW, Robrish SA, Curtis MA, Sharer SA, Bowen WH.
Application of a competition model to the growth of Streptococcus
mutans and Streptococcus sanguis in binary continuous culture. Appl
Environ Microbiol 1983;45:1277-82.
19. Bostanci N, Belibasakis GN. Porphyromonas gingivalis: An invasive
and evasive opportunistic oral pathogen. FEMS Microbiol Lett
20. Labrecque J, Bodet C, Chandad F, Grenier D. Effects of a highmolecular-
weight cranberry fraction on growth, biofilm formation
and adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Antimicrob Chemother
21. Kreth J, Zhang Y, Herzberg MC. Streptococcal antagonism in oral
biofilms: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii
interference with Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 2008;190:4632-40.
22. Stinson MW, Safulko K, Levine MJ. Adherence of Porphyromonas
(Bacteroides) gingivalis to Streptococcus sanguis in vitro. Infect
Immun 1991;59:102-8.



How to Cite

HUTAURUK, R. ., SUNIARTI, D. F. ., & DJOHAN, W. . (2019). POTENTIAL OF JAVANESE TURMERIC ETHANOL EXTRACT IN INHIBITING STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUINIS AND PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS BIOFILM FORMATION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 11(1), 13–17. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2019.v11s1.154



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)