• RIMADANI PRATIWI Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung–Sumedang KM. 21 Sumedang, 45363, Indonesia
  • NISA AMALIA Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung–Sumedang KM. 21 Sumedang, 45363, Indonesia
  • ALIYA NUR HASANAH Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung–Sumedang KM. 21 Sumedang, 45363, Indonesia



Paper-based analytical devices, Diazepam, Colorimetric, Detection method


Objective: The aim of this study was to develop Paper-based Analytical Devices (PADs) with colorimetric method as a presumptive test for detecting diazepam in urine

Methods: Colorimetric method was used as a principle of this study. PADs were fabricated with wax-printing methods. Chosen colorimetric reagent was tested for selectivity with hydromorphone and codeine; and sensitivity by measuring the absorbance with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. PADs were tested for its sensitivity and stability. The intensity of color developed on PADs are measured with ImageJ. The ability of PADs to detect diazepam in urine was simulated with testing spiked urine sample to the PADs

Results: Zimmermann gave the most obvious prominent color change from colorless to purple-red color out of the four reagents. PAD is selective to diazepam when tested with hydromorphone and codeine. PAD is sensitive with a cut-off concentration at 100 ppm. PAD can detect diazepam in urine with the highest recovery percent at 92.8%±4,6

Conclusion: It can be concluded that PAD is quite selective and sensitive to detect diazepam in urine and can be done easily and fast for onsite analysis


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How to Cite

PRATIWI, R., AMALIA, N., & HASANAH, A. N. (2021). DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER-BASED ANALYTICAL DEVICE FOR DETECTING DIAZEPAM IN URINE. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(4), 223–227.



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