• MANISHA PATEL Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19 Knowledge Park-II Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0401-9644
  • RUPA MAZUMDER Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19 Knowledge Park-II Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1888-548X
  • KAMAL KANT KAUSHIK Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19 Knowledge Park-II Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0082-5742
  • ABHIJIT DEBNATH Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19 Knowledge Park-II Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1056-1197
  • RAKHI MISHRA Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19 Knowledge Park-II Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9292-3448
  • SHUBHAM PAL Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute), 19 Knowledge Park-II Institutional Area, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India




COVID-19, Repurposed drug, Convalescent plasma therapy, Antiviral drug, Plasma therapy, Vaccination


A novel coronavirus disease, which is transmitted from human to human has quickly become the cause of the current worldwide health crisis. This virus is, also known as SARS coronavirus, belongs to the Coronaviridae family of viruses. The recent outbreak of acute respiratory disorders starting in Wuhan, China is found to be caused by this virus. The condition caused by it, known as COVID-19 has spread very rapidly all over the world, causing so many death. This led WHO on Mar 11, 2020, to designate it as a global pandemic. An update on the history, etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology and preventive methods for COVID-19 such as masking, quarantine, and social distancing are discussed in this paper. Repurposed drugs, antibodies, corticosteroids, vaccination and plasma transfusion, are among the treatments explained in the study. Finally, the study discusses India’s COVID vaccination programme. The major aspects of this entire review are to describe COVID-19 infection, its prevention and treatment approach.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad Itoo F, Mohammad Mir JM. Surfactant material properties and coronavirus surface: A surface interaction for covid-19 treatment and vaccination. Int J Chem Res. 2021 Oct;5(4):1-6. doi: 10.22159/ijcr.2021v5i4.181.

Thanh Le T, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Gomez Roman R, Tollefsen S, Saville M. The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2020 May;19(5):305-6. doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5, PMID 32273591.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical questions about COVID-19; 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq [Last accessed on 29 Mar 2022].

Coopersmith CM, Antonelli M, Bauer SR, Deutschman CS, Evans LE, Ferrer R. The surviving sepsis campaign: research priorities for coronavirus disease 2019 in critical illness. Crit Care Med. 2021 Apr 01;49(4):598-622. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004895, PMID 33591008.

Parthasarathy S, Sundararajan M, Manimaran A. Insights into corona/coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-opinion versus evidence. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2021 Jul;14(7).

WHO. Severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome; 2022. Available from. https://www.who.int/health-topics/severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome. [Last accessed on Mar 15 2022].

Deslandes A, Berti V, Tandjaoui Lambotte Y, Alloui C, Carbonnelle E, Zahar JR. SARS-CoV-2 was already spreading in France in late December 2019. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jun;55(6):106006. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106006, PMID 32371096.

Liu YC, Kuo RL, Shih SR. COVID-19: the first documented coronavirus pandemic in history. Biomed J. 2020 Aug;43(4):328-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2020.04.007, PMID 32387617.

Stockman LJ, Massoudi MS, Helfand R, Erdman D, Siwek AM, Anderson LJ. Severe acute respiratory syndrome in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Jan;26(1):68-74. doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000247136.28950.41, PMID 17195709.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382(8):727-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017, PMID 31978945.

Rauf A, Abu-Izneid T, Olatunde A, Ahmed Khalil A, Alhumaydhi FA, Tufail T. COVID-19 pandemic: epidemiology, etiology, conventional and non-conventional therapies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Nov 4;17(21):8155. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17218155, PMID 33158234.

Pan Y, Guan H. Imaging changes in patients with 2019-nCov. Eur Radiol. 2020 Jul;30(7):3612-3. doi: 10.1007/s00330-020-06713-z, PMID 32025790.

Wu YC, Chen CS, Chan YJ. The outbreak of COVID-19: an overview. J Chin Med Assoc. 2020 Mar;83(3):217-20. doi: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270, PMID 32134861.

Shang Y, Li H, Zhang R. Effects of pandemic outbreak on economies: evidence from business history context. Front Public Health. 2021 Mar 12;9:632043. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.632043, PMID 33777885.

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 26;382(13):1199-207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316, PMID 31995857.

McIntosh K, Hirsch MS, Bloom A. COVID-19: epidemiology, virology, and prevention. UpToDate. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/covid-19-epidemiology-virology-and-prevention.

WHO. Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants; 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants [Last accessed on 03 May 2022]

Ahmad FB, Cisewski JA, Minino A, Anderson RN. Provisional mortality data– United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Apr 9;70(14):519-22. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7014e1, PMID 33830988.

Sharma AK, Naruka PS, Soni SL, Sharma V, Madaan V, Sharma M. COVID-19: a review report, 2020. Int J Curr Pharm. 2022;14(1):17-22.

Cohen PA, Hall LE, John JN, Rapoport AB. The early natural history of SARS-CoV-2 infection: clinical observations from an urban, ambulatory COVID-19 clinic. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Jun;95(6):1124-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.04.010, PMID 32451119.

WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19); 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports [Last accessed on 15 Mar 2022]

Zhou G, Chen S, Chen Z. Advances in COVID-19: the virus, the pathogenesis, and evidence-based control and therapeutic strategies. Front Med. 2020 Apr;14(2):117-25. doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0773-x, PMID 32318975.

Lan J, Ge J, Yu J, Shan S, Zhou H, Fan S. Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE2 receptor. Nature. 2020 May;581(7807):215-20. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2180-5, PMID 32225176.

Lotfi R, Kalmarzi RN, Roghani SA. A review on the immune responses against novel emerging coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Immunol Res. 2021 Jun;69(3):213-24. doi: 10.1007/s12026-021-09198-0, PMID 33928531.

Hoffmann M, Kleine Weber H, Schroeder S, Kruger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020 Apr 16;181(2):271-280.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052, PMID 32142651.

Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC. Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science. 2005 Sep 16;309(5742):1864-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1116480, PMID 16166518.

Colak H. Active and passive immunization against hepatitis B virus infection. Mikrobiyol Bul. 1982 Jan;16(1):71-6. PMID 7144619.

Jiang Z, Chen S, Zhu Q, Xiao Y, Qu J. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in a tertiary care center in Shenzhen City. J Infect Public Health. 2022 Feb;15(2):222-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2021.12.015, PMID 35032951.

Sukumaran S, Sathianarayanan S. A review on covid-19 pandemic a global threat-current status and challenges and preventive strategies. Int J App Pharm. 2021:10-4. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2021v13i5.42070.

Aleem A, Akbar Samad AB, Slenker AK. Emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and novel therapeutics against coronavirus (COVID-19). StatPearls. 2022.

WHO. COVID-19 dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int. [Last accessed on Mar 21 2022].

Linton NM, Kobayashi T, Yang Y, Hayashi K, Akhmetzhanov AR, Jung SM. Incubation period and other epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infections with right truncation: A statistical analysis of publicly available case data. J Clin Med. 2020 Feb 17;9(2):538. doi: 10.3390/jcm9020538.

Marais C, Claude C, Semaan N, Charbel R, Barreault S, Travert B. Myeloid phenotypes in severe COVID-19 predict secondary infection and mortality: a pilot study. Ann Intensive Care. 2021 Jul 14;11(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s13613-021-00896-4, PMID 34259942.

Gandhi RT, Lynch JB, Del Rio C. Mild or moderate covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 29;383(18):1757-66. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp2009249, PMID 32329974.

Cherumanalil JM, Thayyil J. Pharmacological treatments of covid-19–a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2020 Oct;13(10):16-22. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i10.39055.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020 Mar;30(3):269-71. doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0, PMID 32020029.

Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagstaff KM. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2020 Jun;178:104787. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787, PMID 32251768.

Ketkar H, Yang L, Wormser GP, Wang P. Lack of the efficacy of ivermectin for prevention of a lethal Zika virus infection in a murine system. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Sep;95(1):38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.03.012, PMID 31097261.

Meini S, Pagotto A, Longo B, Vendramin I, Pecori D, Tascini C. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of Covid-19: a review of current evidence, guideline recommendations, and perspectives. J Clin Med. 2020 Jun 30;9(7):2050. doi: 10.3390/jcm9072050, PMID 32629768.

Yao TT, Qian JD, Zhu WY, Wang Y, Wang GQ. A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus-A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option. J Med Virol. 2020 Jun;92(6):556-63. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25729, PMID 32104907.

Tanne JH. Covid-19: FDA approves use of convalescent plasma to treat critically ill patients. BMJ. 2020 Mar 26;368:m1256. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1256, PMID 32217555.

Jose J, Babu JV, Mishra B. Convalescent plasma therapy: A novel approach to a novel coronavirus. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020 Aug;12(8):180-2. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i8.38574.

Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). BioSci Trends. 2020 Mar 16;14(1):69-71. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.01020, PMID 31996494.

Mazhar F, Hadi MA, Kow CS, Marran AMN, Merchant HA, Hasan SS. Use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19: how good is the quality of randomized controlled trials? Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Dec;101:107-20. doi: 10.1016/ j.ijid.2020.09.1470, PMID 33007453.

Jayk Bernal A, Gomes da Silva MM, Musungaie DB, Kovalchuk E, Gonzalez A, Delos Reyes V. Molnupiravir for oral treatment of Covid-19 in non-hospitalized patients. N Engl J Med. 2022 Feb 10;386(6):509-20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116044, PMID 34914868.

Huet T, Beaussier H, Voisin O, Jouveshomme S, Dauriat G, Lazareth I. Anakinra for severe forms of COVID-19: a cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020 Jul;2(7):e393-400. doi: 10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30164-8, PMID 32835245.

Davoudi Monfared E, Rahmani H, Khalili H, Hajiabdolbaghi M, Salehi M, Abbasian L. A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of interferon β-1a in treatment of severe COVID-19. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Aug 20;64(9):e01061-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01061-20, PMID 32661006.

Zhou W, Liu Y, Tian D, Wang C, Wang S, Cheng J. Potential benefits of precise corticosteroids therapy for severe 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 Feb 21;5(1):18. doi: 10.1038/s41392-020-0127-9, PMID 32296012.

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson JR, Mafham M, Bell JL. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 25;384(8):693-704. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021436, PMID 32678530.

Douedi S, Chaudhri M, Miskoff J. Anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody for cytokine storm in COVID-19. Ann Thorac Med. 2020 Jul-Sep;15(3):171-3. doi: 10.4103/atm.ATM_286_20, PMID 32831940.

Lescure FX, Honda H, Fowler RA, Lazar JS, Shi G, Wung P. Sarilumab in patients admitted to hospital with severe or critical COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 May;9(5):522-32. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00099-0, PMID 33676590.

Rosas IO, Brau N, Waters M, Go RC, Hunter BD, Bhagani S. Tocilizumab in hospitalized patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2021 Apr 22;384(16):1503-16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2028700, PMID 33631066.

Mazumder S, Rastogi R, Undale A, Arora K, Arora NM, Pratim B. PRAK-03202: A triple antigen virus-like particle vaccine candidate against SARS CoV-2. Heliyon. 2021 Oct;7(10):e08124. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08124, PMID 34632131.

Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Dadar M, Malik YS, Singh KP. COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020 Jun 2;16(6):1232-8. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227, PMID 32186952.

Wang N, Shang J, Jiang S, Du L. Subunit vaccines against emerging pathogenic human coronaviruses. Front Microbiol. 2020 Feb 28;11:298. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00298, PMID 32265848.

Parums DV. Editorial: First approval of the protein-based adjuvanted Nuvaxovid (NVX-CoV2373) Novavax vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 could increase vaccine uptake and provide immune protection from viral variants. Med Sci Monit. 2022 Mar 1;28:e936523. doi: 10.12659/MSM.936523, PMID 35228506.

Ura T, Okuda K, Shimada M. Developments in viral vector-based vaccines. Vaccines (Basel). 2014 Jul 29;2(3):624-41. doi: 10.3390/vaccines2030624, PMID 26344749.

Li J, Hou L, Guo X, Jin P, Wu S, Zhu J. Heterologous AD5-nCOV plus CoronaVac versus homologous CoronaVac vaccination: a randomized phase 4 trial. Nat Med. 2022 Feb;28(2):401-9. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01677-z, PMID 35087233.

Kaur SP, Gupta V. COVID-19 Vaccine: A comprehensive status report. Virus Res. 2020 Oct 15;288:198114. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198114, PMID 32800805.

Wu S, Huang J, Zhang Z, Wu J, Zhang J, Hu H. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in adults: preliminary report of an open-label and randomised phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Dec;21(12):1654-64. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00396-0, PMID 34324836.

Antrobus RD, Coughlan L, Berthoud TK, Dicks MD, Hill AV, Lambe T. Clinical assessment of a novel recombinant simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 as a vectored vaccine expressing conserved Influenza A antigens. Mol Ther. 2014 Mar;22(3):668-74. doi: 10.1038/mt.2013.284, PMID 24374965.

Bhatta M, Nandi S, Dutta S, Saha MK. Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): a systematic review for potential vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022 Dec 31;18(1):1865774. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1865774, PMID 33545014.

Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rovetta A, Rahmani J. Vaccines and drug therapeutics to lock down novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review of clinical trials. Cureus. 2020 May 28;12(5):e8342. doi: 10.7759/cureus.8342, PMID 32494546.

Mulligan MJ, Lyke KE, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S. Phase I/II study of COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in adults. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):589-93. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2639-4, PMID 32785213.

Walsh EE, Frenck RW Jr, Falsey AR, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A. Safety and immunogenicity of two RNA-based Covid-19 vaccine candidates. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2439-50. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2027906, PMID 33053279.

Parasher A. COVID-19: current understanding of its Pathophysiology, Clinical presentation and Treatment. Postgrad Med J. 2021 May;97(1147):312-20. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138577, PMID 32978337.

Tebas P, Yang S, Boyer JD, Reuschel EL, Patel A, Christensen Quick AD, Pezzoli P, Schultheis K, Smith TRF, Ramos SJ, McMullan T, Buttigieg K, Carroll MW, Ervin J, Diehl MC, Blackwood E, Mammen MP, Lee J, Dallas MJ, Brown AS, Shea JE, Kim JJ, Weiner DB, Broderick KE, Humeau LM. Safety and immunogenicity of INO-4800 DNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: A preliminary report of an open-label, Phase 1 clinical trial. E Clinical Medicine. 2021 Jan;31:100689.

Yan ZP, Yang M, Lai CL. COVID-19 vaccines: a review of the safety and efficacy of current clinical trials. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Apr 25;14(5):406. doi: 10.3390/ph14050406, PMID 33923054.

Kumari D, Prasad BD, Dwivedi P, Sahni S. COVID-19 vaccines: A possible solution to an ongoing pandemic. The Pharm Inno. 2021 Mar;10(5):1142-5.

Chung YH, Beiss V, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF. COVID-19 vaccine frontrunners and their nanotechnology design. ACS Nano. 2020 Oct 27;14(10):12522-12537. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.0c07197, PMID 33034449.

Cowin. Wining over COVID-19; 2022. Available from: https://dashboard.cowin.gov.in. [Last accessed on 05 May 2022].

Vaccinated India; 2022. Available from: https://vaccinate-india.in/dashboard. [Last accessed on 05 May 2022].



How to Cite

PATEL, M., MAZUMDER, R., KAUSHIK, K. K., DEBNATH, A., MISHRA, R., & PAL, S. (2022). A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF COVID-19 PULMONARY VIRAL INFECTION AND REPURPOSING OF DRUGS FOR ITS TREATMENT. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(5), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i5.45168



Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)