• LIA LAILA Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, 20155. Nanomedicine Center of Excellence Innovation, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, 20155
  • ANDY CANDRA Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan
  • YADE METRI PERMATA Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, 20155
  • BAYU EKO PRASETYO Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, 20155. Nanomedicine Center of Excellence Innovation, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, 20155



Clove oil, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Nanoemulsion, Stability, Antioxidant, Antibacterial


Objective: This study aimed to develop a topical nanoemulsion using clove oil and ethanol extract of catharanthus roseus (L.) G. for antioxidant and antibacterial dosage form.

Methods: The nanoemulsion was produced using a spontaneous emulsification method. The formulation was carried out using tween 80 and pluronic 127 as surfactants with different extract concentrations (0.5–2%). The characterizations of the formula included organoleptic test, homogeneity, pH determination, emulsion type, viscosity, particle size determination, zeta potential, and stability test were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was conducted using DPPH method and antibacterial activity was determined against propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Results: The result showed that all the formulations produced a stable nanoemulsion with semisolid, clarity, transparent and homogenous characteristic. The nanoemulsion had pH of 5.5-6.5 and belong to oil in water (O/W) type of emulsion. The formula showed viscosity ranged from 121.33±0.29 until 211.01±1.00 cps, had particle size below than 300 nm, and were stable for 3 mo of storage and after accelerated evaluation. nanoemulsion contained 2% of c. roseus extract showed moderate antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 96.29±3.64 and antibacterial activity with 10.65±0.15 and 13.27±0.21 mm of inhibition zones for propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively.

Conclusion: Clove oil combined with the ethanol extract of c. roseus produced a stable nanoemulsion, which demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant and antibacterial activities.


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